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WHAT ARE CYCLONES?

 

A "Cyclonic Storm" or a "Cyclone" is an intense vortex or a whirl in the atmosphere with very strong winds circulating around it in anti-clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere.

The word "Cyclone" is derived from the Greek, word "Cyclos" meaning the coils of a snake. To Henri Peddington, the tropical storms in the Bay of Bengal and in the Arabian Sea appeared like the coiled serpents of the sea and he named these storms as "Cyclones".

Cyclones are intense low pressure areas - from the centre of which pressure increases outwards- The amount of the pressure drop in the centre and the rate at which it increases outwards gives the intensity of the cyclones and the strength of winds. 

The criteria followed by the Meteorological Department of India to classify the low pressure systems in the Bay of Bengal and in the Arabian Sea as adopted by the World Meteorological Organisation (W.M.O.) are:

 

Types of Disturbances

Associated wind speed in the Circulation

1. Low Pressure Area

2. Depression

3. Deep Depression

4. Cyclonic Storm

5. Severe Cyclonic Storm

6. Very Severe Cyclonic Storm

7. Super Cyclonic Storm

Less than 17 knots ( < 31 kmph)

17 to 27 knots ( 31 to 49 kmph)

28 to 33 knots ( 50 to 61 kmph)

34 to 47 knots ( 62 to 88 kmph)

48 to 63 knots ( 89 to 118 kmph)

64 to 119 knots ( 119 to 221 kmph)

120 knots and above ( 222 kmph and above)

1 knot - 1.85 km per hour

              A full-grown cyclone is a violent whirl in the atmosphere 150 to 1000 km across, 10 to 15 km high. Gale winds of 150 to 250 kmph or more spiral around the center of very low pressure area with 30 to 100 hPa** below the normal sea level pressure. The central calm region of the storm is called the "Eye". The diameter of the eye varies between 30 and 50 km and is a region free of clouds and has light winds. Around this calm and clear eye, there is the "Wall Cloud Region" of the storm about 5O km in extent, where the gale winds, thick clouds with torrential rain, thunder and lightning prevail. Away from the "Wall Cloud Region", the wind speed gradually decreases. However, in severe cyclonic storms, wind speeds of 50 to 60 kmph can occur even at a distance of 600 km from the storm centre. The gales give rise to a confused sea with waves as high as 20 metres, swells that travel a thousand miles. Torrential rains, occasional thunder and lightning flashes - join these under an overcast black canopy. Through these churned chaotic sea and atmosphere, the cyclone moves 300 to 500 km, in a day to hit or skirt along a coast, bringing with it storm surges as high as 3 to 12 metres, as if splashing a part of the sea sometimes up to 30 km inland leaving behind death and destructions.

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